The principle of unity (the holizm assumes that planning in the economic organization has to have system character. "System" means concept: existence of set of elements; interrelation between them; existence of the uniform direction of development of elements of system, the behavior focused on common goals. How the main components of concept "system" can be expressed in intra firm planning? They can be described, using the categories "coordination" and "integration". Planning elements in the organization are the separate divisions entering into it and separate parts of process of planning. The interrelation between divisions is carried out for of coordination at the horizontal level, that is at the level of functional divisions (department of marketing, production department, finance department, etc.).
From the financial point of view ensuring the principle of flexibility needs additional expenses, and the level of expenses has to correspond to probable future risk. For example, the firm has to be ready to allocate additional costs of acquisition of the equipment if according to its forecasts release of new types of products demands readjustment of such equipment.
Join in structure of a wages fund added by the enterprise, institution, the organization of the sum of compensation in monetary and natural forms for the fulfilled and unfinished time, the stimulating surcharges and extra charges, the compensation payments connected with an operating mode and working conditions, awards and lump incentive sums, and also payments on the food, housing, fuel having regular character.
Secondly, personal participation of members of the organization, including ordinary workers, in the course of planning leads to that plans of the organization become personal plans working, and participation in achievement of the objectives of the organization brings satisfaction to own needs of workers. Each of workers has new, pronounced motives to an to work, the command spirit in the organization becomes stronger.
Formal, that is it is conscious, by means of special methods organized, planning is only one of forms a of administrative decisions Besides formal a practically each manager uses so-called " anticipation", that is the planning based on experience of the management, it "sober calculation" and also on set of the individual qualities sometimes described as an instinct, resourcefulness, creative abilities (creativity), special intuition (scent), etc. and which are associated with gifted businessmen.
First, each of participants of the organization receives deeper understanding of the organization, knowledge of various parties of her life. He receives more extensive and objective information on the organization, than earlier. In general process of an exchange of intra firm information is facilitated.
Fourthly, partisipativny planning unites two functions of management which often conflict with each other, - operational management and planning. Plans stop being something external for heads. Heads are involved in their drawing up. How to organize partisipativny planning? If the organization is small, the system of participation in process of planning can be based on direct contacts between the management of firm, planners (if they are) and workers. Practical participation of groups of workers in planning can be organized within such structures as quality circles.