Originally in primitive society, almost all activity of the person was reduced to development of production of goods without what it was impossible to maintain the lowest level of consumption of material benefits. At further steps of development of human society and production there are intellectual requirements, volume grows and the structure of consumption becomes complicated, the standard of living of people raises. In the conditions of perfect advanced industrial production the mankind had a satisfaction opportunity substantially all the developed types of requirements: material, spiritual and social. Improvement of life of the population is shown first of all in fuller satisfaction of material needs for food, clothes and footwear, housing, working conditions and other vital benefits.
Their ''irreversibility'' belongs to specific feature of requirements: to some intensity at any situation they change, as a rule, in one direction - towards growth. In the set of requirement are boundless. And it means that material needs for goods and services, diverse spiritual needs completely cannot be satisfied. But the mankind strives for the maximum satisfaction of requirements for what it has to develop production, using the available limited resources.
Such exchange processes are caused by public division of labor which, on the one hand, separates producers, separates them by types of work, with another – generates steady functional interrelations between them. The first develops into economic isolation, in independence of managing of each producer and acts as an economic basis of formation of subjects of the market relations. The second is modified in exchange processes on an equivalent basis through purchase and sale of goods. As a result the economic prerequisite of transformation of the simple producer into subject of the market relations materializes and production becomes commodity. Producers will independently organize production and product sales, compensate costs, expand and improve production. Exchange processes in the conditions of the commodity-money relations take the form of the market relations.
Things become goods not in itself, and only when they act as object of an exchange between people. Therefore in goods human relations concerning an exchange of work products are expressed. The exchange of goods can take the different forms, but in all cases the exchange is an action during which we receive or we give one thing in exchange for another.
Thus, the essence of money is that is a specific trade dress with which natural form public function of a universal equivalent grows together. The essence of money is expressed in unity of their two properties: general direct obmenivayemost and general working hours.
At the same time various relation to factors of production not only divides, but also in a known way connects people, creates mutual interest in connection of diverse factors, joint participation in the organization, continuous renewal of various spheres and types of economic activity.
What is the goods? The goods are the product of work intended for an exchange by purchase and sale. The goods possess two properties: first, it satisfies any human requirement, secondly, is the thing capable to exchange on other thing. In other words, the goods possess the potrebitelny cost and exchange value.
And that is not less important, the goods have to be not only are made made), not only made for others, but also sold to other people, that is, transferred on the basis of equivalent (equivalent) compensation (the gift, though is made for satisfaction of needs of other person, is not goods).
the stimulating function. At drop in prices producers reduce production, at the same time find possibilities of decrease in costs by introduction of new equipment, technology, improvement of the organization of work;
economic competition. The competition is a process of interaction, interrelation and fight of producers and suppliers at product sales, rivalry between certain producers or suppliers of goods and services for the most favorable conditions of production and is sold;
state regulation, that is impact of the state on activity of economic subjects and market conditions for the purpose of providing normal conditions for functioning of a market mechanism, the solution of environmental and social problems;